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HIST 3311 - Sex and Society in American History (Mammina)

The Chicago Manual of Style

Two Citation Styles

There are two Chicago citation styles:

  • Notes and Bibliography
  • Author-Date

Notes and Bibliography is used mostly in the humanities. Sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each citation corresponds to a superscript number in the text. The notes and bibliography style is more flexible than the author-date style.

Author-Date is used in the sciences and social sciences. In this style, the sources are cited in the text using the author name and the year of publication with a corresponding citation in the bibliography.

In-Text Citations

In Text Citation examples taken from Purdue Owl:

Notes and Bibliography

    1. Contributors’ Names, “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name in Italics, last edited date,
    1. Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, and Allen Brizee. “General Format,” The Purdue OWL, October 12, 2011,

Author Date In-text Citation:

(Contributors’ Surnames year of publication, page or section number when available).
(Clements et al. 2011).

Examples of Bibliography Citations

The following are a list of citation examples. Remember, these are examples of only a few sources you may encounter in your research.

Journal Article

Note: Include the whole page range, include URL, name of the database and/or the DOI. The DOI is preferred over the URL. 

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. "Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978-2015: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality." Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1-34.

Book with One Author

Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press: 2016.


Note: Include URL or name of database. 

Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. Proquest Ebrary.

Online Video

Bouman, Katie. "How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole." Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, Video, 12:51,

Essay in an Anthology (Book of Essays)

Smiley, Pamela. "Gender-lined Miscommunication in 'Hills like White Elephants." In Ernest Hemingway: Seven Decades of Criticism, edited by Linda Wagner-Martin, 81-94. Michigan State University Press, 1998.


Yale University. "About Yale: Yale Facts." Accessed May 1, 2017.

Citation Resources