The Chicago Manual of Style
Two Citation Styles
There are two Chicago citation styles:
- Notes and Bibliography
Notes and Bibliography is used mostly in the humanities. Sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each citation corresponds to a superscript number in the text. The notes and bibliography style is more flexible than the author-date style.
Author-Date is used in the sciences and social sciences. In this style, the sources are cited in the text using the author name and the year of publication with a corresponding citation in the bibliography.
In Text Citation examples taken from Purdue Owl:
Notes and Bibliography
Author Date In-text Citation:
Examples of Bibliography Citations
The following are a list of citation examples. Remember, these are examples of only a few sources you may encounter in your research.
Note: Include the whole page range, include URL, name of the database and/or the DOI. The DOI is preferred over the URL.
Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. "Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978-2015: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality." Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1086.690235.
Book with One Author
Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press: 2016.
Note: Include URL or name of database.
Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. Proquest Ebrary.
Bouman, Katie. "How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole." Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, Video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.
Essay in an Anthology (Book of Essays)
Smiley, Pamela. "Gender-lined Miscommunication in 'Hills like White Elephants." In Ernest Hemingway: Seven Decades of Criticism, edited by Linda Wagner-Martin, 81-94. Michigan State University Press, 1998.
Yale University. "About Yale: Yale Facts." Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.